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A review of the history of veterinary wound management

Author(s)

John Clewlow
BVSc, MPhil, MRCVS
Editor, Veterinary History (the journal of The Veterinary History Society)
1 St James Court, Grange Park Drive Biddulph, Staffordshire, ST8 7XX, UK
Email: johnclewlow@aol.com

Contents
Published: July 2003
Last updated: July 2003
Revision: 1.0

Keywords: Veterinary wound management; historical review; treatment recommendations; wound healing.

Key Points

  1. Veterinary medicine has largely evolved from knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, diseases and treatments of the horse. The farrier therefore became the most important of all the animal healers. Later, human surgeons took an interest in veterinary medicine, adapting and using treatments intended for human wounds in the care of their animals.

  2. Publications written in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries contain many of the same approaches to treating wounds as well as individual writers' recommendations for suitable preparations and procedures.

  3. Certain principles of wound management have been established for centuries and terms first used to classify wounds are still in use today.

Abstract

This review of the history of veterinary wound management is by no means exhaustive. It is based on the author's private early literature collection, mainly consisting of books written in the seventeenth, eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, although these and later authors also referred to much earlier works. From this, it can be seen that modern veterinary wound management often mirrors that used in human medicine, and to some extent this has been the case from time immemorial.


Introduction

The history of veterinary medicine mainly revolves around the emergence of knowledge of the anatomy, physiology, diseases and treatments of the horse, which for centuries was the basis of transport for all occupational, trading, military, sporting and leisure activities. Diseases of the 'lesser' animals (eg farm livestock and household or hunting dogs) were dealt with almost as an afterthought in early texts and their conditions were assumed to be comparable to those of the horse. Clinical diagnoses of diseases were based on symptoms and it was these that were treated rather than the underlying disease process, which was rarely understood. The symptoms of one disease merged with the symptoms of another and all of the treatments were of an empirical nature, based mainly on plant and animal compounds. In contrast, the situation with wounds was much more straightforward. Animal wounds were clearly visible and its cause often known; it could be compared with previously treated ones and the outcome monitored through observation.

Early writers

One of the first known commentators was Cato [1], the Roman agricultural writer (c 200 BC) who recommended the use of olive oil dregs, lupine extract and good wine for the scab in sheep. Columella [2] (c 70 AD) thought that it was better to get rid of suppuration with the surgeon's knife, rather than with medication, and then to wash the wound with warm ox urine and bind it up with linen bandages soaked in liquid pitch and oil. Even at this early time it was obviously appreciated that an infected wound would not heal without first removing infected tissue.

Gaston Phoebus [3] (1387-8), in his Le Livre de Chasse, devoted two chapters to the care of hounds. Wounds were not sutured and only bite wounds were treated. These were covered with raw wool drenched in olive oil, the dressings being changed every day for three days. The wound was then left open to the fresh air and the healing effect of the dog's tongue. This would have been a reasonably effective treatment as lanolin (present in raw wool) and oil have an emollient as well as a light anaesthetic and antiseptic effect.

Who treated animals?

In Britain, for most of the period under review, the horse was in the care of the farrier. Although originally responsible for shoeing horses, the farrier now rose to the top of a hierarchy of animal healers, which also included horse doctors, horse leeches, cow doctors and cow leeches. Shoeing became the prerogative of the shoeing-smith, while farriery required more complex skills and knowledge, involving a seven-year apprenticeship. Many of the recipes for ointments and other applications were handed down from father to son. Often, the wounds for which horses were treated were sores that may have resulted from ill-fitting harness or saddles, rather than from other external causes.

During the eighteenth century a number of 'human' surgeons, including Gibson, Bracken, Bartlet, Blaine, Osmer, Wallis, Blunt, Taplin and Prosser (see reference list for details of their work), closely identified themselves with veterinary work, some writing farriery texts and some entering practice. It seems clear that these men used and adapted treatments intended for human wounds in their care of animals.

Treating wounds

Throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, many of the same approaches to treating wounds appear repeatedly in the publications written by the experts of the time. The following section demonstrates some of the common themes as well as the writers' individual recommendations for suitable preparations and procedures.

Cleansing and asepsis

In 1605, Leonard Mascall [4] in his First Booke of Cattell, under the heading of 'Impostumes in beastes to helpe', advised to 'open the place with an yron, and when it is cut, then shall yet crush forth all the ill humour and matter therein'. He next suggested washing the wound with warm wine to cleanse it and using a mixture of 'Cherpi, (so called in French)', 'tarre' and 'oyle Olive' to 'close the sore therwith'. Washing wounds with warm white wine was also recommended in Thomas Blundeville's [5] The foure chiefest Offices belonging to Horsemanship (1609) and he made a distinction between bruises made by blunt weapons and wounds made by sharp weapons.

Much later, J de Saunier [6] (1769), riding-master and director of the Academy at Leyden, also used wine when he promoted a 'Water proper for all Sorts of Wounds':

'Take round Birthwort and powdered Sugar, of each 2 Ounces: Boil the Birthwort in a Quart of White-Wine till it comes to a Pint, and then strain the Whole thro' a fine Linnen Cloth, and keep it in a Bottle for Use. You need only wash the Wound twice a Day with this water, in order to keep it clean, without any other Application; and if it be fresh received, this alone will soon heal it.'

In the 1631 edition of The Whole Art of Husbandry, Conrad Heresbach [7] proposed for wounds that:

'be great and in a fleshie part, or any other part where conveniently you may, best stitch it up with a needle and redde silke, then taynte it with Terpentine, Ware, & clarified Hogges-grease of each like quantitie, and halfe so much Verdigrease ...'.

'Turpentine Wax and Hogs-grease' were also used by Gervase Markham (1635), one of the most prolific writers of the seventeenth century, in his The English Husbandman [8] and for 'old, putrefied, and most rancorous ulcers' he recommended 'Loame and Vinegar'.

Thomas de Gray [9] (1656) suggested a number of remedies, which included salves, unguents, powders and waters:

'Take of Perosen, and of hard Rosin, of each one pound, of Frankincense, Virgin-wax, or for want thereof new Wax, and Sheeps suet, of each half a pound, of old tried Hogs grease one pound and a quarter, boyl the Gums and Wax in white Wine half a pint, and then put into it your Sheeps tallow and Hogs grease, and when all is well molten and incorporated, strain it, & whilst it is yet hot put in of Venice Turpentine one ounce, and so work all well together, and when it is cold, pour in the liquor from the Salve, which put up into a clean Galley pot, or other clean vessel for your use. This is a most soveraign Treat or Salve wherewith to heal any wound (that is not come to an Ulcer) and to dry it up.'

The importance of using clean vessels to reduce the risk of infection is emphasised, and the distinction between a wound and the more difficult to heal ulcer is clearly understood. For a powder that 'healeth the buds or knots of the Farcin' (an equine disease associated with glanders) he suggested the following:

'Take unslaked Lime, the dry dust of Tanners Oken Barke, and old shooe-soles burned to a cole, of each like-much, make these into fine powder, and mix them well, and keep it in a clean box or glass for your use.'

Here again there is a reference to cleanliness, long before asepsis was recognised for surgical procedures, and de Gray asserts that this powder 'also healeth and skinneth all other sores'. His recipe to deal with ulcers and old sores included a mixture of mastick, frankincense, cloves, green copperas, brimstone and myrrh [10]. In cases where a plaster was needed for a wound to keep in the salve, he recommended the reader to:

'Take Pitch, Rosin, Mastick, Turpentine, Hoggs-grease, of each so much as will suffice, melt al these together; and so keep it: and when you would use it, spread what will serve upon a plaister of Leather, and so cover the wound therewith. This salve doth infinitely comfort a wound green or old, be the same Fistula or otherwise'.

Specific conditions are also referred to. For example for a pin and web [11] (a horny induration of the third eyelid of the horse), he prescribes: 'the powder of burnt alum, or of a black flint, or the powder of Ginger, either of these made into fine powder and blown into the eye'.

Plasters and poultices

In the 1676 edition of Markham's Cheap and Good Husbandry [12] the author states:

'Of the Imposthume in the ear, Pole-evil, Fistula, Swelling after blood-letting, any gall'd back, Canker in the Withers, Sitfast, Wens, Navel-gall, or any hollow Ulcer. ... the most certain cure is to take clay of a Mud or Lome-wall, without Lime, the straws and all, and boyling it in strong vinegar, apply it plaister-wise to the sore, and it will of its own nature search to the bottom and heal it; provided, that if you see any dead or proud flesh arise, that then you either eat or cut it away.'

The phrase 'search to the bottom' suggests that Markham understood the concept that wounds must heal from the base upwards to ensure that no dead space is created. It is to be hoped that the use of the word 'eat', when referring to removing proud flesh, was in the context of 'to destroy' rather than literally meant.

Another example of the treatment of a specific wound is given in The Husbandman's Instructor [13] (~1680) where a recipe for a venomous wound is propounded:

'Take a handful of peonyroyal, stamp it, with an ounce of the flour of Brimstone; boil 'em in a pint of Vinegar, and as much water, then add an ounce of Allom, with as many beaten Almonds, or Figs, as will make it thicken when three parts boiled away; and spreading it Pultice or Plaister-wise, apply it to the sore, and it will in twice doing, draw owt the venom; anoint it with an Ointment made of Butter and Beef[s]wax, and 'twill heal.'

For the Aposthume and Ulcer the same author, known only as AS Gent, advocated the following regime [14]:

'Draw the swelling to a head with a Plaister made of Rye-Meal, Ground-Ivy, and the Yolks of Eggs; when ripe, launce it, and put into the hole powder'd burnt Allom and Salt, curing it with a Plaister of Burgundy Pitch.'

From this it appears that the principles of poulticing were well appreciated by the late seventeenth century. Eighty years later, Wallis's section on wounds in his The Farrier's and Horseman's Complete Dictionary [15] (1764), is taken from Bartlet and includes his suggestion for treating puncture wounds, such as those caused by thorns, with the application of a beer or bread and milk poultice followed by daily fomentations. Similar poultices using bread or meal were also recommended for strangles (throat infection) in horses: those suggested by Prosser (~1795)[16] were a turnip poultice, bread poultice and a linseed meal.

'Curing' wounds and preventing bleeding

In Sir William Hope's abridged version of The Compleat Horseman: or, Perfect Farrier (1711), by the French author Jacques de Solleysel, a list of rules was laid down that were to be followed for 'curing wounds' [17]. These included probing the wound, preferably with a silver probe; keeping down proud flesh; arresting bleeding; washing with warm wine or urine or the water from a smith's forge; preventing the horse from licking the wound and shaving the hair from around the wound. One of his ointments, 'The Hermit's', comprised birthwort, Paul's betony, sage, sanicle, roots of marshmallows and comfrey, all boiled with a pint of cream. In cases of gangrene he recommended 'early scarification of the part to the quick, with a fleam'. To arrest haemorrhage from a wound he advised 'Powder of Sympathy' (prepared from Roman Vitriol), tying off the vessel or using a hot iron.

The Dictionarium Rusticum, Urbanicum & Botanicum [18] of 1717 proposed some instructions for the treatment of gunshot wounds that involved ascertaining whether the bullet was still inside. This was followed by dropping some varnish into the bottom of the wound and then applying a 'charge' comprised of 'Bole Armoniack', 'Linseed-Oil', 'Bean-flowers', 'Eggs, shells and all', 'Turpentine' and 'Vinegar'.

For an ointment 'which is good to heal any Wound', ER Gent [19] in his The Experience'd Farrier' ... (1720), favoured a mixture of 'Rosemary, Wound-wort, red Sage, Mugwort, Comfrey, Rue and Southernwood' boiled with 'May-Butter' and 'Sheep's-Suet'.

Six years later, in The Farrier's and Horseman's Dictionary [20] a distinction was recognised between simple and complicated wounds that involved broken or dislocated bones. Simple wounds involved flesh and were not generally considered dangerous; however, internal wounds often proved 'mortal' as they affected organs such as the bladder, lungs, heart, guts and stomach. Greasy ointments were not advisable as they tended 'to make the flesh grow too fast'. William Gibson [21] in his The Farrier's New Guide (1738) supported this claim and for cases of haemorrhage gives the ingredients of 'Colebatch's Styptick Powder' which includes iron filings, spirits of salt and 'Saccharum Saturni'.

In his Gentleman's Farriery [22] (1764), John Bartlet refers to La Fosse, farrier to the King of France, who had had success using puff-balls to stop bleeding, a method used about 160 years previously by the German surgeon Felix Wurtz on humans. Bartlet's recommendations were applauded by John Wood [23] in his A New Compendious Treatise of Farriery (1752) and for a soothing ointment for irritating wounds he advised:

'Take Half a Pound of Leaf-tobacco, and boil it in a Quart of Red Wine to a Pint. Then strain off the Liquor, and add to it Half a Pound of Tobacco finely Powdered, a Pound of Hogs-lard, a Quarter of a Pound of Rosin, four Ounces of Bees-Wax, and two Ounces of the Roots of Round-Birthwort in Powder. Make these Ingredients into an Ointment.'

The use of blue vitriol to stop vessels from bleeding was advocated by James Towmshend [24] in The Royal Farrier (~1771). For wounds in horses' feet (eg those caused by a nail), he washed the wound with oil of turpentine, then poured in melted pitch and tar and filled up the foot with bran moistened with oil of turpentine. If this proved unsuccessful he opened the wound and dressed it with tincture of myrrh [25]. The same substance was favoured by Ephraim Blaine [26] (1831), who, for cases of profuse bleeding, promoted the use of a paste to be put in the wound that consisted of blue vitriol, fresh nettles, wheaten flour, wine vinegar and oil of vitriol, all held in place with strong bandages.

Henry Bracken [27] in Farriery Improved (1756), makes the following interesting statement regarding wound healing:

'And our Fore-fathers, not considering the reason of Things so well as we do now, imagined fresh or green Wounds were cured by Sympathy, and became so far infatuated, as to dress the Instrument, or at least lap up in clean Linen the Tool with which the Wound was given, and by keeping such Instrument locked up, and the Wound from the Air, thought it healed in a short time.'

For a scar or 'cicatrix' on the cornea of the eye [28], Bracken favoured finely powdered glass mixed with honey and fresh butter; he compared its action to that of a joiner smoothing his work with a 'Fifth skin'. Some 250 years later the practice remains of 'freshening up' the edges of corneal ulcers to stimulate healing.

The concept of drainage from an infected wound was clearly understood by Osmer [29] who, in his A Treatise on the Diseases and Lameness of Horses (1766), opined:

'In all wounds, where matter lies lower than the orifice of the wound, and cannot flow out, it produces fistulous cavities in the parts ... Now it is always necessary to go to the bottom of such (where the parts will admit of incision) otherwise no cure can be expected.'

In his A Treatise on Cattle (1776), John Mills [30] relies on the observations of Samuel Sharpe, surgeon and author of Treatise on the Operations of Surgery, for his section on wounds, believing animals to be similar to man. He recommended a dry lint dressing with 'a pledget of ointment on tow' renewed every day and bandaged, but for small wounds, the less dressing the better. Here we have a suggestion that air is beneficial for wound healing.

William Merrick [31] in The Classical Farrier (1788), advised that wounds which penetrated to the bone should not be treated with ointments, but only with lint dipped in honey of roses mixed with myrrh and aloes. For inflamed wounds requiring a mild poultice, William Taplin [32], in his Gentleman's Stable Directory (1791), proposed a mixture of bread, barley meal, Goulard's vegeto mineral water (extract of Saturn, camphorated spirits of wine with rain or river water) and lard. The use of 'tents', made from a wad of tow (wool, hemp or flax) and dipped in a dressing, were used to keep wounds open but the dressing in. One such dressing, favoured by Samuel Drinkwater [33] (1797) in Every Man His Own Farrier, included black and yellow basilicon, horse turpentine and spirit of turpentine. John Lawrence [34] (1798), commenting on the treatment of ulcers, said that they: 'must be brought to the state of a wholesome wound, and to discharge a good white and thick matter, previous to any attempt at healing', and he recommended a mixture of oak bark and ceruse powder.

Suturing

The suturing of wounds was often performed even from early times. John Reeves [35] (1763) was of the opinion that waxed thread was better than silk because it rotted more easily and was not as prone to cutting. He believed that one stitch was sufficient for wounds of two or three inches but where more were required they should be an inch apart. Horses tended to burst their stitches as they got up and down and so it was often best not to suture unless the wound was large and gaping. Reeves advised leaving open wounds that entered the body cavity by using a 'tent' or 'dossil' soaked in 'digestive of turpentine, honey, and the tincture of myrrh'.

Suturing became more popular in the nineteenth century. In cases of abscessation, the use of setons, which had been employed for many years, was still favoured. James Clark [36] (1802), advised inserting a needle attached to a cord through the top of the abscess or 'tumour' and bringing it out at the bottom. The ends of the cord were then either tied together or a 'small button of wood' was applied to each end to prevent it from slipping out. The idea was that the cord (seton) could regularly be drawn downwards and so help any matter to be discharged. Although Delabere Blaine [37] (1803) was an advocate of suturing, he believed that 'when a wound is much torn, or bruised, stitches are better avoided'. In Thomas Boardman's [38] dictionary (1805), the first text to use the word veterinary in its title, he reiterated the importance of examining wounds with either a probe or finger.

Francis Clater [39] (1817) recommended the use of thin leather or silk for suturing wounds in cattle after first cleaning the wound with 'Tincture of Benzoin'. He noted that in the summer cattle often fought and were 'apt to gore one another'. For wounds involving a joint he suggested a recipe containing 'Mel-Egyptiacum' 'Tincture of Myrrh and Aloes', 'Tincture of Benzoin' and 'Aquafortis', which was to be poured into the wound. James White [40] (1822), whose works went into numerous editions, still advanced the centuries-old tradition of bleeding followed by a dose of physic to open the bowels. Above all, according to Pursglove [41] (1823), experience and observation were essential for successfully dealing with the subject of wounds.

Developments in the nineteenth century and beyond

Despite the founding of the London Veterinary College in 1791, the commentators of the first half of the nineteenth century still countenanced the use of the recipes that had been handed down through the generations. William Youatt (1776-1847) was undoubtedly the most influential veterinarian at this time, writing books on The Horse, Cattle, Sheep, The Pig and The Dog. These works were the equivalent of modern-day textbooks, containing a wealth of information. His discussion on how to 'search' a horse's foot, which had been pricked [42] or wounded, could not be bettered, but even he still favoured bleeding and physic for eye wounds in cattle [43]. For the scab in sheep [44] he warned against the use of 'the corrosive and arsenic lotion', being in favour of 'equal parts of lime-water and a decoction of tobacco'. For cutaneous eruptions in pigs [45] he recommended either a soot solution or creosote. Youatt was an expert on rabies, having probably seen more cases of rabid animals than anyone and for the bite of a mad dog he favoured the application of 'lunar caustic' (silver nitrate) [46] to the wound. In contrast, George Fleming (1872) [47] believed that the most effective treatment for the bite of a rabid dog was to employ a hot iron 'to destroy the saliva and the tissues tainted by it'.

The fact that dogs' wounds were often not treated because it was thought that the tongue was the best dressing was scorned upon in the 1851 edition of Blaine's Canine Pathology [48] as this could lead to ulceration, according to the editor, Thomas Walton Mayer. He noted that wounds from dog bites were common and suggested washing them with friar's balsam.

In A Practical Treatise on the Veterinary Art, J Briddon (1846) formulated a poultice [49] for general purposes, but especially for wounds of the stifle joint in horses. This comprised the dregs of ale and sufficient oatmeal to form a stiff paste, but mollified with hog's lard.

Fitzwygram (1862) [50] promoted the use of astringents to dry up excessive secretions, form healthy cicatrices (scars), check the formation of proud flesh and by 'constringing' the size of blood vessels, reduce superficial inflammation. Common astringents in use in veterinary practice at this time were alum, acetate of lead and zinc and the sulphates of zinc, iron and copper. From this list a move to chemical medicines is noted.

In Mayhew's Illustrated Horse Doctor [51] (1904), we find the use of the word pus as well as suppuration being used. Engravings are included in this work to help illustrate the different types of wound. A lotion which Mayhew recommended for lacerated wounds contained a mixture of tincture of cantharides, chloride of zinc and water. Generally he suggested the avoidance of all poultices. Mulder [52] cites the US Department of Agriculture's Special Report on Diseases of the Horse (1911), which lists new wound antiseptics including bichloride of mercury, carbolic acid, aluminium acetate, borasic acid, creolin, Lysol, iodoform and tannic acid. With the introduction of sulphonamides and then penicillin in the 1930s and 1940s, great advances in wound treatment became possible, especially where entry into a body cavity had occurred.

The pioneer of aseptic surgery, Joseph Lister, concluded that wounds became infected because of the entry of germs from the air. Using carbolic acid (phenol), as an antiseptic agent, he worked with James McCall [53] (1834-1915), the founder of the Glasgow Veterinary College, to develop his methods using horses and calves. During the twentieth century, the use of chemical agents such as proflavin and hydrogen peroxide were introduced to supplement or replace the plant products that had been in use for centuries.

Conclusion

This review of the history of veterinary wound management illustrates that certain principles have been established for centuries: the importance of the removal of infected tissue, cleanliness, wound drainage and the distinction between wounds and ulcers.

Wound classification and terminology such as healing by first or second intention are still in use today, as are suture methods and materials. Saline or brine washes did not appear to be common until the twentieth century, possibly due to the high cost of salt in earlier times. It can only be presumed that bleeding was used on the assumption that the removal of blood was essential for the removal of toxins and reduction of inflammation. As wounds invariably became infected and would not heal until the infection had abated, early practitioners believed that this suppuration was an essential prelude to healing and so often tried to speed up this process by using poultices to create suppuration at an early stage, even in cases where it may not naturally have occurred. Despite the array of unpleasant compounds used in treatment, wound healing generally appears to have been successful. This was probably because the body's natural response to a wound is to heal it in spite of any 'veterinary' intervention.

Today, modern veterinary wound care can be seen to mirror that used in human medicine and vice versa and to some extent this has always been the case from time immemorial.

References

1. Smith F. The Early History of Veterinary Literature and its British Development. London: Balliere, Tindall and Cox, 1919; vol 1. Reprinted by JA Allen & Co, 1976; 13.

2. Forster ES, Heffner EH. Lucius Junius Moderatus Columella on Agriculture. Cambridge Massacheusetts: Harvard University Press (Loeb Classical Library), 1968; vol 2: 157.

3. Cited by Boor-van der Putten I. Canine veterinary medicine in the middle ages. Luxembourg: Historia Medicinae Veterinariae, 2003; 1-11.

4. Mascall L. The First Booke of Cattell. London: John Harison, 1605; 18.

5. Blundeville T. The foure chiefest Offices belonging to Horsemanship (4th part). London: Humfrey Lownes, 1609; 68.

6. Saunier J de. A Guide to the Perfect Knowledge of Horses. London: W Nicoll, 1769; 117.

7. Heresbach C. The Whole Art of Husbandry. London: Richard More, 1631; 229-30.

8. Markham G. The English Husbandman (Second book). London: Henry Taunton, 1635; 92.

9. De Gray T. The Complete Horse-man, and Expert Ferrier (3rd ed). London: Humphrey Moseley, 1656; 539-40.

10. Ibid, 285.

11. Ibid, 292.

12. Markham G. Cheap and Good Husbandry (13th ed). London: George Sawbridge, 1676; 58-59.

13. Gent AS. The Husbandman's Instructor. London: A Conyers, ~1680; 41-42.

14. Ibid, 58.

15. Wallis T. The Farrier's and Horseman's Complete Dictionary (2nd ed). London: W Owen, 1764.

16. Prosser T. A Treatise on the Strangles and Fevers of Horses. London: B Uphill, 1795; 25.

17. Solleysel J de. The Compleat Horseman: or, Perfect Farrier. Abridged by Sir William Hope. London: R Bonwicke & Co, 1711; 290-304.

18. Dictionarium Rusticum, Urbanicum and Botanicum (2nd ed). London: F Nicholson, 1717.

19. Gent ER. The Experience'd Farrier, or Farring Completed (4th ed). London: G Conyers, 1720; 159.

20. The Farrier and Horseman's Dictionary. London: J Darby, 1726.

21. Gibson W. The Farrier's New Guide (9th ed). London: T Longman, 1738; 193-205.

22. Bartlet J. The Gentleman's Farriery (5th ed). London: J Nourse, 1764; 246-57.

23. Wood J. A New Compendious Treatise of Farriery. London: J Wood, 1752; 111-24.

24. Towmshend J. The Royal Farrier. London: Isaac Fell, ~1771; 122-26.

25. Ibid, 144-48.

26. Blaine E. The Village Farrier. London: E Blaine, 1831; 49.

27. Bracken H. Farriery Improved (8th ed). London: J Shuckburgh, 1756; 122.

28. Ibid, 140.

29. Osmer W. A Treatise on the Diseases and Lameness of Horses (3rd ed). London: T Waller, 1766; 97.

30. Mills J. A Treatise on Cattle. London: W Whitestone, 1776; 186-207.

31. Merrick W. The Classical Farrier. London: J Aspin, 1788; 362-403.

32. Taplin W. The Gentleman's Stable Directory. London: GGJ & J Robinsons, 1791; 146-79.

33. Drinkwater S. Every Man His Own Farrier. Hereford: WH Parker, 1797; 171-79.

34. Lawrence J. A Philosophical and Practical Treatise on Horses. London: TN Longman, 1798; 558-59.

35. Reeves J. The Art of Farriery (2nd ed). Salisbury: J Newbery, 1763; 311.

36. Clark J. A Treatise on the Prevention of Diseases Incident to Horses (4th ed). Edinburgh: J Clark, 1802; 241-51.

37. Blaine D. A Domestic Treatise on the Diseases of Horses and Dogs (3rd ed). London: T Boosey, 1803; 157.

38. Boardman T. A Dictionary of the Veterinary Art. London: George Kearsley, 1805.

39. Clater F. Every Man his own Cattle Doctor (5th ed). London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1817; 201-17.

40. White J. A Compendium of the Veterinary Art (13th ed). London: Longman, 1822; 256-91.

41. Pursglove J. A Guide to Practical Farriery. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1823; 338-44.

42. Youatt W. The Horse: with a Treatise on Draught. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1838; 303-05.

43. Youatt W. Cattle: their Breeds, Management, and Diseases. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1838; 289.

44. Youatt W. Sheep: their Breeds, Management and Diseases. London: Baldwin, Cradock and Joy, 1838; 536.

45. Youatt W. The Pig: a Treatise on the Breeds, Management, Feeding and Medical Treatment of Swine. London: Cradock and Co, 1847; 102-03.

46. Youatt W. The Dog. London: Longman, Green and Co, 1874; 147.

47. Fleming G. Rabies and Hydrophobia. London: Chapman and Hall, 1872; 330.

48. Blaine D. Blaine's Canine Pathology (5th ed). Revised and corrected by Thomas Walton Mayer. London: Longman Brown, 1851; 199-202.

49. Briddon J. A Practical Treatise on the Veterinary Art. London: Simpkin, Marshall and Co, 1846; 105.

50. Fitzwygram FWJ. Lectures on Horses and Stables. London: Smith, Elder and Co, 1862; 145.

51. Mayhew E. Mayhew's Illustrated Horse Doctor. Revised and enlarged by James Irvine Lupton. London: William Glaisher, 1904; 451-64.

52. Mulder JB. A Historical Review of Wound Treatments. New York: Veterinary Heritage, 1994; 17-27.

53. Cited by Dunlop RH, Williams DJ. Veterinary Medicine: An Illustrated History. St Louis: Mosby Year Books, Inc, 1996; 397-99.




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